The London Conference functioned as an international forum to discuss the rules of the road in cyberspace with an emphasis on Internet Freedom issues. The agenda for the Budapest Conference was broader. In addition to norms for cyber behaviour, governance and Internet freedom, the discussions covered capacity building for cyber security, the respective roles of the state, regional and private sectors in providing cyber security. Hereby it called for the correct balance between Internet freedom and internet security.
The conference framed the challenges for cyberspace as finding the right balances, first for the claims for free online expression and association against the need to protect people online from terrorism and crime, and second for the openness, creativity and absence of borders against the need of states to deal with the challenges in cyberspace within their territory.
Microsoft presented a remarkable whitepaper that proposed the creation of international public-private partnerships, concluding that these can strengthen the resilience of vital infrastructures and agile responses by relevant organizations to complex cyber security challenges.